Camouflage Patterns and Designs From the Past

Abbott Thayer, an American artist, made an important discovery about animals in nature in the late 1800s. His observation became a useful tool in the development of modern camouflage patterns and designs.

Thayer noticed that several animals had colouring that graduated from dark on their backs to almost white on their abdomens. It is this property that is the most important in making modern camouflage useful. It is this graduation from dark to light that breaks up the surface of an object making it harder to see the object as one thing. Therefore, the object loses its three-dimensional quality making it appear flat.

Although camouflage has gone mainstream in recent years, it has been used as early as the 14th century by ninjas in Japan. Most of the camouflage clothes that they used were dark colours because they operate under cover of darkness. But ninjas are also known to use other materials that will help them blend in with their operating environment.

The military realized how camouflage would help them greatly in defeating the enemy. Armies used to wear colourful, flamboyant uniforms with intricate designs.

By the time that World War I came (around May 31 or June 1, 1916), military uniforms were in drab shades of brown or green.

It was during this time that the French established a Section de Camouflage (Camouflage Department). They were mostly painters, sculptors and theatre-set artists headed by Eugene Corbin in the beginning but later on Lucien-Victor Guirand de Scevola took over.

Other countries followed suit. England, the United States, Germany and Italy all set up their Camouflage Departments in the military.

Soldiers were made to wear hand-painted uniforms as added protection as well as to enable them to approach their enemies without being easily detected. In an effort to conceal snipers from their enemies, they were made to wear camouflage gloves.

In addition to military uniforms, false bridges, decoy tanks and even paper-mache horse carcasses were built for snipers, to be used as blinds.

Meanwhile, Norman Wilkinson, a British marine artist was responsible for “dazzle painting” where ships were covered with bold stripes and splotches. Instead of trying to blend ships into the horizon, they were made highly visible to the enemy but made it appear distorted. Enemies became confused about its size, direction and what armaments it had on board. Weapons were also painted with camouflage patterns, and sometimes they were covered by camouflage netting.

By World War II, camouflage was part of military tactics of most nations.

The US Military continued the use of camouflage uniforms during the Korean War. One such uniform was the Markaware Mitchell Camouflage Coat which was also use for shelter and helmet covers.

During the Vietnam War, US troops were made to wear a “boonie suit” that was dull green in colour, so that they can blend well into the jungle.

In 1981, the US Woodland pattern with enlarged splotches was developed. This enlargement of the design represented a shift in military tactics from close-range combat in Vietnam to more distant fighting. This is still being used by the US Military and the Navy SEALs today.

Although the “chocolate chip” tan and brown pattern that featured rock-like clusters of black and white was developed for camouflage uniforms for US troops in 1962 for the Arab-Israeli conflicts, it was used sparingly until the Gulf War. Although worn by US troops in the biennial Bright Star exercises in Egypt during the eighties, and by FORSCOM peacekeepers in Egyptian Sinai, the design proved to contrast too much with the terrain and since it had a six-colour pattern, it was expensive to produce. As a result, the Desert Camouflage Uniform was developed.

The Canadian military developed a digital pattern for their military camouflage uniform in the late nineties. These were not supposed to make the uniforms undetectable but they were supposed to “create ambient visual noise that an enemy would disregard when glancing in a camouflaged soldier’s direction. The US military adopted a similar design.

Other camouflage designs that came out were the lizard and tiger stripe patterns used by the French military in Indochina and the British army in Burma; and the ghillie suit or what is sometimes called the wookie suit, yowie suit or camo tent. This camouflage uniform is designed to look like heavy foliage. It was named for the Gaelic “lads who accompanied deer hunts in the Scottish Highlands. It is usually a net or cloth garment that is covered in loose strips of cloth or twine that are made to look like leaves and twigs, and sometimes, soldiers would add scraps of foliage from the area. Snipers usually wear the ghillie suit to blend into their surroundings and to conceal themselves from their enemies.

Are Dog Bites Covered Under Homeowners Insurance

If you own a dog, you know there are expenses. You cover the cost of food, veterinary bills, boarding fees when you travel, and other things like toys and grooming accessories. You may also have a pet health insurance policy to help cover the cost of treating serious illness, but it is essential to have a policy that protects you and your dog in the event of a biting incident. Some homeowners insurance policies include liability for dog bites, but you should research your options to make sure you are well covered.

How important is having a policy to cover liability when somebody is bitten and injured? It is estimated that close to five million people in the United States suffer a dog bite each year. Not all of those injured are attacked by strange strays, either – often the victim is a friend or relative of the dog’s owner. The degrees of severity will vary, too, and not everybody will file a claim.

USA Today reports that dog bites constitute more than a third of the overall liability claims paid out in 2011. With almost $500 million paid to victims as a result, it comes as no surprise that dog owners may be expected to shell out for higher premiums, and that may deter you from getting the right insurance. This can be risky – you can insist your dog wouldn’t hurt a fly, but are you willing to take chances?

Are dog bites covered under homeowners insurance? This largely depends on the following factors:

1) The insurance company. Does the company of your choice include dog bite liability in their plans? If so, for how much money can you insure your pet should he/she strike? Consult with your agent with regards to your options.

2) Your dog. You may be denied certain coverage by virtue of your dog’s breed. Pit bulls, German Shepherds, and Rottweilers are among the breeds that some insurers will not cover.

If you encounter obstacles in obtaining insurance because of your dog’s breed or the cost of the premium, don’t feel discouraged. There are ways you can work toward getting the protection you need.

1) Enroll your dog in a certified obedience training program. Taking the initiative to condition your dog so he/she behaves around others may help your case when you look for insurance. A company may be willing to give you a policy if you can prove your dog has received the proper training.

2) Research umbrella policies. As the name implies, “umbrella” insurance is designed to cover a broader range of liability than offered by other policies. If your homeowners insurance does include dog bites, your umbrella policy takes over.

Depending on the type of dog you own and other factors, you can enroll in home insurance that covers pet attacks, and protect your pet and home. If you do not have insurance in place, consult with agents and find the right plan for your family.

Tips for Buying Concealer for Under Eye Bags

Concealers work wonders in lightening under eye bags, dark circles and other skin blemishes, dramatically improving your skin’s appearance. The best concealers provide cover without being visible. To get this effect, you do not apply concealer just to the discoloured areas.

The discoloration beneath the eyes is caused by blood vessels that appear blue or grey when they reflect light. To cover this area, you need to choose the right shade and texture. Concealer comes in various formulations and textures, and they are used on different problem areas. It is important to match the texture with the problem area.

For example, a concealer used to cover under-eye areas should always be moist and creamy, whereas a concealer designed to cover breakouts or broken capillaries should be much drier in texture so it will adhere better and last longer. Choosing a formula which is too moist will cause the concealer to slip into creases and fine lines, drawing attention to the discoloured areas which you do not want others to see.

You would need to spend some time experimenting to find the right formula for yourself for different problem areas.

Here Are The Top Three Concealers For Under Eye Bags:

1) Solid Cream Stick Concealers

Solid cream stick concealers give full coverage, but may be hard to blend. They are useful in hiding some of the more prominent blemishes and skin discoloration. They are great for minimizing under-eye circles. However, you need to make sure the consistency is creamy enough to blend well so as not to accentuate the fine lines.

2) Pot Concealers

Pot concealers contain more moisturizing ingredients, but are less thick while still giving good coverage. They work better for under the eyes. Drier, oil-free formulas can be used for other parts of the face.

3) Tube Concealers

These concealers have a creamier texture that is lighter and less likely to collect in fine lines. They are versatile and are great for mature skin. They can be easily mixed with moisturizer or foundation to create a perfect concealer for under eye bags.

When you choose a concealer for dark circles, be sure to choose the same shade as your foundation. If you have truly dark under-eye circles, choose a shade or two lighter. Bear in mind that the under-eye area contains fewer oil glands than anywhere else on your body. When shopping for an eye concealer, be sure to buy a high quality eye crème at the same time. Using eye crème will help your concealer adhere without clogging and caking.